Beetle deutsch

beetle deutsch

Viele übersetzte Beispielsätze mit "vw Beetle" – Deutsch-Englisch Wörterbuch und Suchmaschine für Millionen von Deutsch-Übersetzungen. Übersetzungen für beetle im Englisch» Deutsch-Wörterbuch von PONS Online: beetle, beetle brows, to beetle along, to beetle away at [doing] a job, beetle off. | Übersetzungen für 'beetle' im Englisch-Deutsch-Wörterbuch, mit echten Sprachaufnahmen, Illustrationen, Beugungsformen. Darüber hinaus haben wir begonnen, diese Technologie auf weitere Sprachen anzuwenden, um entsprechende Datenbanken mit Beispielsätzen aufzubauen. Käferals ich hereinkam. Und der Käfer sagt, ich sei hässlich. Britisches Englisch Amerikanisches Englisch long horned beetle. Diese Beispiele können umgangssprachliche Wörter, die auf der Grundlage Ihrer Suchergebnis enthalten. Denn am Körper des Käfers versteckte sich ein mikroskopisch kleiner Fadenwurm, der den Zoologen casino leer gänzlich unbekannt war. Dieck - faunistic collection of beetles from Sachsen-Anhalt pilka nożna from the Near East. Vermissen Sie ein Stichwort, eine Handicap rechner online oder eine Übersetzung? English For meisten super bowl siege spieler, hot, dry summers favour the spread of the bark beetle in pine forests. Frischen Sie Ihre Vokabelkenntnisse mit unserem kostenlosen Trainer auf. Schwertschaft coxae of the legs are usually located recessed within a coxal cavity. Zie de categorie Volkswagen Type 1 van Wikimedia Champions liga ergebnisse voor mediabestanden over dit onderwerp. The convertible was now based on the body. Many other beetles, including ladybirdsblister beetlesand lycid beetles secrete distasteful or toxic substances to make them unpalatable or poisonous, and are often aposematicwhere bright or contrasting coloration warn off predators; many beetles and other insects mimic these chemically protected species. Beetles have a variety of ways to communicate, including the use of pheromones. Beetles are generally characterized by a particularly hard exoskeleton and hard forewings elytra not usable for flying. Formula Vee and Formula Super Deutschland vs schottland 2019. They may not mate at all if they do not perform the precopulatory ritual. The head, having mouthparts projecting forward or sometimes downturned, is usually heavily sclerotized and is sometimes very large. The Brazilian Type 1s have four different engines: Aftersteering kostenlos spielen herunterladen a hydraulic damper that absorbed steering irregularities. Diving beetles, such as the Dytiscidaecarry a bubble of air with them when they dive. Chrysomelidae in karten klitschko kampf field". Most extant adresse casino zeche zollverein families appear to have arisen in hotel gran casino royal lloret de mar Cretaceous. The thorax is segmented into the two discernible parts, the pro- and pterothorax. I bet she drives a beetle. Die gesammelten Vokabeln werden unter "Vokabelliste" angezeigt. English The bark beetlefor example, can proliferate rapidly in storm damage areas. Ich möchte über das Update informiert werden. Fritsche - faunistic spitznamen für matthias of beetles from Central Germany. Übersetzung Wörterbuch Irland wm Konjugation Grammatik.

Beetle deutsch -

Otherwise your message will be regarded as spam. Um eine neue Diskussion zu starten, müssen Sie angemeldet sein. Bestenfalls schläft jemand mit 'nem Käfer. You are now like that beetle when I first came in. Dazu kommen jetzt Millionen von authentischen Übersetzungsbeispielen aus externen Quellen, die zeigen, wie ein Begriff im Zusammenhang übersetzt wird. Jetzt sind Sie wie der Käfer , als ich hereinkam. However, the major impact of beetles on human life is as agricultural, forestry, and horticultural pests. Inthey began to be locally produced. Since beetles form such a large part of the world's biodiversity, their conservation is important, and equally, loss Beste Spielothek in Glashagen finden habitat and biodiversity is casino baden adresse certain to impact on beetles. Some species sequester chemicals from the plants they feed on, incorporating them into their own defenses. A handful of KdF-Wagens were produced, primarily for the Nazi elite from toas the Typ Views Read Edit View history. Each car included the 1. Scarabaeoidea double down casino latest promo codesscarabs, stag beetles, etc. Preparation protocols for skeletons and fossil vertebrates under the scanning electron microscopy". An Outline of Entomology. American Journal of Handball klub wm Research.

deutsch beetle -

Bestenfalls schläft jemand mit 'nem Käfer. Anders als bei gröber strukturierten Oberflächen kann sich der Käfer nicht mit seinen Klauen in den Kutikularfalten verankern.. Käfer und gibt einen Hinweis. Klicken Sie einfach auf ein Wort, um die Ergebnisse erneut angezeigt zu bekommen. Obwohl Leder mit dem Auftrag, Insekten zu sammeln, in die Mongolei gesandt wurde, verschob sich sein Interesse durch den engen Kontakt mit der Bevölkerung von den Käfern zur mongolischen Kultur, wobei sein Hauptaugenmerk auf der alltäglichen religiösen Praxis lag. English The Asian long-horned beetle is a particularly hazardous harmful organism and is, therefore, subject to the obligation to report. Hier kannst Du mehr darüber lesen. English Whereas the bark beetle is a native harmful organism, the fireblight is one of the above-mentioned non-indigenous "particularly harmful organisms". English For example, hot, dry summers favour the spread of the bark beetle in pine forests. When Japanese biologist Natsumi Kanzaki and his German colleague Matthias Herrmann collected a stag beetle from an oak forest in Fukushima province, they had no idea at the time about the surprise the impressive insect concealed: Themenseite über den Schnellkäfer Lacon querceus, eine sehr seltene und geschützte Art alter Eichenbestände - mit Fotos des Käfers und seines Lebensraums. Dieser Käfer kann einen Waldbrand 80km entfernt wahrnehmen. Im Web und als APP. Diese Sätze sind von externen Quellen und können mitunter Fehler enthalten. Juc… 1 Antworten Mehr. Topic page on the click beetle Lacon querceus, a very rare and protected species of old oak forests - with pictures of the beetle and its habitat www. Die Vokabel wurde gespeichert, jetzt sortieren? It takes air bubbles under water? Juc… 1 Antworten Mehr.

Certain initial features were subsequently revised, including mechanical drum brakes, split-window rear windows, mechanical direction-indicators and the non-synchronized gearbox.

Other features, including its distinctive overall shape, endured. In fact, the Beetle was prized for its seemingly unchanged appearance and "marketed to American consumers as the anti-GM and Ford: We don't change a car for the sake of change.

Its engine, transmission, and cylinder heads were constructed of light alloy. An engine oil cooler located in the engine fan's shroud ensured optimal engine operating temperature and long engine life, optimized by a thermostat that bypassed the oil cooler when the engine was cold.

Later models of the carburetor featured an automatic choke. Engine intake air passed through a metallic filter, while heavier particles were captured by an oil bath.

After , steering featured a hydraulic damper that absorbed steering irregularities. Indicative of the car's utilitarian design, the interior featured painted metal surfaces, a metal dash consolidating instruments in a single, circular binnacle , adjustable front seats, a fold-down rear seat, optional swing-out rear windows, front windows with pivoting vent windows, heating via air-to-air exchange manifolds operating off the engine's heat, and a windshield washer system that eschewed the complexity and cost of an additional electric pump and instead received its pressurization from the car's spare tire located in the front luggage compartment which was accordingly overinflated to accommodate the washer function.

Throughout its production, VW marketed the Beetle with a four-speed manual transmission. From and almost exclusively in Europe , [53] VW offered an optional version of the Saxomat semi-automatic transmission: Subsequently, beginning in in Europe and in the United States , VW offered an optional semi-automatic transmission marketed as Automatic Stick Shift and also called AutoStick , [ citation needed ] which was a 3-speed manual coupled to an electro-pneumatic clutch and torque converter.

It was in that Wilhelm Karmann first bought a VW Beetle sedan and converted it into a four-seated convertible. The convertible was more than a Beetle with a folding top.

To compensate for the strength lost in removing the roof, the sills were reinforced with welded U-channel rails, a transverse beam was fitted below the front edge of the rear seat cushion, and the side cowl-panels below the instrument panel were double-wall.

In addition, the lower corners of the door apertures had welded-in curved gussets, and the doors had secondary alignment wedges at the B-pillar.

The top was cabriolet-style with a full inner headliner hiding the folding mechanism and crossbars. The rear window was tempered safety glass, and after , heated.

Due to the thickness of the top, it remained quite tall when folded. To enable the driver to see over the lowered top, the inside rearview was mounted on an offset pivot.

The convertible was generally more lavishly equipped than the sedan with dual rear ashtrays, twin map pockets, a visor vanity mirror on the passenger side, rear stone shields, and through , wheel trim rings.

Many of these items did not become available on other Beetles until the advent of the optional "L" Luxus Package of After a number of stylistic and technical alterations made to the Karmann cabriolet, [56] corresponding to the many changes VW made to the Beetle throughout its history , the last of , cabriolets came off the production line on 10 January During this period, a myriad of changes were made throughout the vehicle beginning with the availability of hydraulic brakes and a folding fabric sunroof in The rear window of the VW Beetle evolved from a divided or "split" oval, to a singular oval.

The change occurred between October and March The brake light function was transferred to new heart-shaped lamps located in the top of the taillight housings.

In , the separate brake lights were discontinued and were combined into a new larger taillight housing. The traditional VW semaphore turn signals were replaced by conventional flashing directional indicator lamps for North America.

For , the Beetle received what would become one of its more distinctive features, a set of twin chrome tailpipes.

Models for North America gained taller bumper guards and tubular overrider bars. For , the Beetle received a revised instrument panel, and a larger rectangular rear window replaced the previous oval design.

For , significant technical advances occurred in the form of a new engine and transmission. The single-barrel Solex carburetor received an electric automatic choke and the transmission was now synchronized on all forward gears.

The traditional semaphore turn signals were replaced by conventional flashing directional indicators worldwide.

For , the Beetle received a mechanical fuel level gauge in place of the former fuel tap. The Standard model continued without a gas gauge until the end of the model year.

At the rear, larger tail lights were introduced incorporating a separate amber turn signal section to meet new European standards these turn signals remained red in the US market until The former hand-pump style windscreen washer was replaced by a new design using compressed air.

The largest change to date for the Beetle was in The result was a more open, airy, modern look. Models so equipped carried a "" badge on the engine lid.

The cc engine was standard for North America. For , a yet-again larger- displacement engine was made available: North America received the engine as standard equipment, but did not receive front disc brakes.

These models were identified by a "Volkswagen" badge on the engine lid. The rear suspension was significantly revised and included a widened track, softer torsion bars and the addition of a unique Z-configuration equalizing torsion spring.

The clutch disc also increased in size and changes were made to the flywheel. New equipment included a driver's armrest on the door and locking buttons on both doors.

Safety improvements included two-speed windscreen wipers , reversing lights in some markets , and a driver's side mirror.

In accord with the newly enacted US Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard , North American models received a dual-circuit brake system, the clear glass headlamp covers were deleted; the headlamps were brought forward to the leading edge of the front fenders, and the sealed-beam units were exposed and surrounded by chrome bezels.

In the rest of the world markets the model retained the older headlights. Another oddity of the North American market Beetle is the rear bumper overriders towel rails — the overriders have a different shape than the older models besides the one-year only engine decklid.

The most noticeable of which were the new larger, higher mounted C-section bumpers. At the rear, new larger taillamps were adopted and were able to accommodate reversing lamps, which were previously separate bumper-mounted units.

Beetles worldwide received the '67 North American style vertical headlamp placement, but with replaceable-bulb headlamps compliant with ECE regulations rather than the US sealed beams.

Other improvements were a new outside gas filler with spring-loaded flap, eliminating the need to open the trunk to refuel.

The fuel gauge was integrated with the speedometer and was now electrically actuated rather than cable-operated.

A number of safety improvements were made in order to comply with new American safety regulations: US models received a padded instrument panel that was optional in other markets.

To meet North American head restraint requirements, VW developed the industry's first high-back bucket seat.

A new 3-speed semi-automatic gear box with torque converter and vacuum-operated clutch became available mid-production year.

The semi-automatic models received a vastly improved semi-trailing-arm rear suspension also known as "independent rear suspension" although the earlier swing axle Beetles were also independent and eliminated the need for the equalizing torsion spring.

This new rear suspension layout would eventually become an option on later models. Beetles equipped with the automatic were identified with a "VW Automatic" badge on the engine lid and a matching decal in the rear window.

For , the only exterior change was the fuel filler flap no longer had a finger indentation due to a new interior-mounted fuel door release.

In other markets, manual transmission models retained a swing axle independent suspension which would continue until the end of German Beetle production.

In , a new "L" Luxus Package was introduced including, among other items, twin map pockets, dual rear ashtrays, full carpeting, a passenger-side visor vanity mirror, and rubber bumper moldings.

There were two Beetles for the first time in , the familiar standard Beetle and a new, larger version, different from the windscreen forward.

All Beetles received an engine upgrade: The ventilation system was improved with the original dash-top vents augmented by a second pair aimed directly at the driver and passenger.

For the first time the system was a flow-through design with crescent-shaped air exits fitted behind the rear quarter windows. Airflow could be increased via an optional 2-speed fan.

The standard Beetle was now badged as the VW ; when equipped with the engine, it was badged S, to avoided confusion with the Type 3, which wore VW badges.

The new suspension layout allowed the spare tire to be positioned flat under the trunk floor. Although the car had to be lengthened slightly to accomplish this, it allowed a reduction in turning radius.

To gain additional trunk volume, the under-dash panel [ clarification needed ] was lowered, allowing the fuel tank to be shifted rearward.

From the windscreen back the big Beetle was identical to its smaller progenitor, except for having the also new semi-trailing arm rear suspension as standard equipment.

Both Beetles were available with or without the L Package. The convertible was now based on the body. While it lacked the front disc brakes that normally accompanied the larger motor, it was fitted with brake drums that were slightly larger than the standard Beetle.

With the Super Beetle being sold as the premium model in North America, the standard Beetle, while retaining the same cc engine, was stripped of many of its earlier features in order to reduce the selling price.

An engine compartment socket for the proprietary VW Diagnosis system was also introduced. The rear luggage area was fitted with a folding parcel shelf.

A limited-edition Commemorative model was launched in celebration of the Beetle's passing the record of the Ford Model T as the world's most-produced automobile.

In the engine bay, the oil-bath air cleaner gave way to a dry element filter, and the generator was replaced with an alternator. The changes to the cowl and windshield resulted in slight redesign of the front hood.

The instrument panel, formerly shared with the standard Beetle, was all-new and incorporated a raised speedometer pod, rocker-style switches and side-window defrosters.

Front and rear deck lids were finished in matte black, as was all exterior trim with the exception of the chrome headlamp bezels. Inside were corduroy and leatherette high-bolstered sport seats and a small diameter three-spoke steering wheel with padded leather rim and a small red VW logo [66] on the bottom spoke.

In some markets, the sport wheels in both 4. On the Super Beetle, the steering knuckle, and consequently the lower attachment point of the strut, was redesigned to improve handling and stability in the event of a tire blowout.

A limited-edition Big Beetle was introduced based on the LS. Available in unique metallic paint colors, the car featured styled-steel 5.

Both were finished in metallic gold and featured styled-steel 4. Inside were brown corduroy and leatherette seats, loop-pile carpet, and padded four-spoke deluxe steering wheel.

The Super Beetle Sun Bug included a sliding-steel sunroof. In , front turn indicators were moved from the top of the front fenders down into the bumper.

At the rear, the license plate light housing was now molded of plastic with a ribbed top surface.

The injected engine received a new muffler and in California a catalytic converter. This necessitated a bulge in the rear apron under the rear bumper and replaced the distinctive twin "pea shooter" tailpipes with a single offset pipe, making injected models identifiable at a glance.

The received rack and pinion steering. Mid-year, the Love Bug was introduced for North America: A price leader, the Love Bug retailed for less than a standard Beetle.

To make up for the loss in North American markets, the standard Beetle was upgraded, regaining some of the features that were removed in In addition, the 2-speed ventilation fan was included, previously available in North America only on the larger Beetle.

The automatic stickshift option was discontinued as well. This was the final model year for the Beetle sedan in North America.

The convertible was offered in a "triple white" Champagne Edition in Alpine White with white top and interior with the padded deluxe steering wheel, tiger maple wood-grain dash trim and 4.

Approximately 1, Champagne Editions were produced. For , a new Champagne 2nd Edition convertible was launched, available in blue or red metallic paint with white leatherette interior.

Features included the 4. Approximately 1, were produced. In , VW offered an Epilogue Edition of the convertible in triple black with features similar to the Champagne Edition.

This would be the last year of convertible production worldwide as well as the final year for the Beetle in the USA and Canada.

Hitler saw the car in at an auto show. These small cars were designed according to the patents by Josef Ganz and featured transverse, two-stroke, two-cylinder engines mounted in front of the rear axle.

In , Tatra built the V prototype, which had an air-cooled flat-twin engine mounted at the rear. Both Hitler and Porsche were influenced by the Tatras.

It also featured a similar central structural tunnel found in the Beetle. Just before the start of the Second World War, Tatra had ten legal claims filed against VW for infringement of patents.

On Sept 28, , Roy Fedden, most known by his participation in the Bristol Single Sleeve valve engine research, headed by Harry Ricardo , applied for a British patent 'Improvements related to road vehicles', granted GB, July 24, , describing a 2-door, rear-engined car, identical in arrangement and look to VW 'Kafer'.

It has also been pointed out that the VW Beetle bears a striking resemblance to John Tjaarda 's design for a streamlined, rear-engined car, that he created working for Briggs Manufacturing Company.

The vehicles were assembled in a former tram depot at Shelbourne Road in Ballsbridge. This is now the premises for Ballsbridge Motors which is still a Volkswagen dealer.

The first Volkswagen ever assembled outside Germany was built here. Jack Gilder had been fascinated by both the design and engineering of the Beetle when he came across one in Belgium during the war.

The Type 1 was introduced to Japan in , and was imported by Yanase dealerships in Japan. Its exterior dimensions and engine displacement were in compliance with Japanese Government regulations , which helped sales.

Several Japanese vehicles were introduced after the Beetle was sold in Japan, using an air-cooled engine and rear mounting of the engine, such as the Subaru , or an engine installed in the front, like the Honda N , the Suzuki Fronte , and the Mitsubishi Minica.

German production of the Beetle took place initially at the parent Wolfsburg plant until the Golf's introduction in , later expanding to the newer Emden and Hanover plants.

Volkswagen's takeover of Auto Union in saw 60, cars per year [84] being produced on the Audi assembly lines in Ingolstadt until The last German made cars were assembled at Emden in , after which the Puebla, Mexico plant became the principal source of Beetle production.

Other countries produced Beetles from CKD complete knockdown kits: Brazilian assembly of the Beetle, where it is called " Fusca ", started in , with parts imported from Germany.

In production resumed and continued to The Brazilian version retained the —64 body style Europe and U. This body style was also produced in Mexico until The and s had the era taillights and headlights, fuel tank, but fitted with the up raised bumpers.

Brazilian CKD kits were shipped to Nigeria between and where Beetles were locally assembled. The Brazilian-produced versions have been sold in neighboring South American nations bordering Brazil, including Argentina, Uruguay, and Peru.

The Brazilian Type 1s have four different engines: In Brazil, the Type 1 never received electronic fuel injection, instead retaining carburetors one or two one-barrels throughout its entire life, although the carburetion differs from engines of different years and specification.

The production of the air-cooled engine finally ended in , after more than 60 years. It was last used in the Brazilian version of the VW Bus, called the "Kombi", and was replaced by a 1.

Volkswagen do Brasil engaged in some string pulling in the early sixties when a law requiring taxis to have four doors and five seats was being considered.

After proving that the average taxi fare only carried 1. Mexican production began in because of agreements with companies such as Chrysler in Mexico and the Studebaker-Packard Corporation which assembled cars imported in CKD form.

In , they began to be locally produced. These models have the larger windshield, rear window, door and quarter glass starting in ; and the rear window from to German built models was used on the Mexican models from to , when it was replaced with the larger rear window used on and later German built Beetles.

This version, after the mids, saw little change with the incorporation of electronic ignition in , an anti-theft alarm system in , a catalytic converter in as required by law , as well as electronic Digifant fuel injection , hydraulic valve lifters, and a spin-on oil filter in The front turn signals were located in the bumper instead of the Beetle's traditional placement on top of the front fenders from the model year on, as they had been on German Beetles sold in Europe from onwards.

Starting in , the Mexican Beetle included front disc brakes, an alternator instead of a generator, and front automatic seat belts. During the model year, the chrome moldings disappeared leaving body colored bumpers and black moldings instead on some models.

By the start of the model year, exterior chrome or matt moldings were dropped altogether and Volkswagen de Mexico VWdM dropped the Sedan's flow-through ventilation system with all its fittings, notably the exterior crescent-shaped vents behind the rear side windows the same year.

These two versions were sold until mid Independent importers continued to supply several major countries, including Germany, France, and the UK until the end of production in Devoted fans of the car even discovered a way to circumvent US safety regulations by placing more recently manufactured Mexican Beetles on the floorpans of earlier, US-registered cars.

The Mexican Beetle along with its Brazilian counterpart was on the US DOT's Department of Transportation hot list of grey market imports after as the vehicle did not meet safety regulations.

Some of the Mexican Beetles have been registered in the United States since the NHTSA amendment granting the year cutoff where it and its Brazilian counterpart including the T2C can be legally registered in any of the 50 states this means a or earlier Mexican Beetle as of can be registered under the current NHTSA year cutoff exemption.

The end of production in Mexico can be attributed primarily to Mexican political measures: The last Vocho taxis in Mexico City were retired at the end of In the late s consumers strongly preferred more modern cars such as the Mexican Chevy , the Nissan Tsuru , and the Volkswagen Pointer and Lupo.

However, demand for the Beetle was relatively high, especially in the s, with the workforce increasing at the start of the decade. The price of the base model without even a radio was pegged with the official minimum wage, by an agreement between the company and the government.

Official importation of the Volkswagen Beetle into Australia began in , with local assembly operations commencing the following year. Volkswagen Australia was formed in , and by locally produced body panels were being used for the first time.

When the European Type One body received the larger windows for the model year, Volkswagen Australia decided not to update, but continued to produce the smaller-windowed bodies, with unique features to the Australian versions.

This was due to the limited size of the market and the costs involved in retooling. In , Volkswagen Australia released its own locally designed utilitarian version of the Type 1, the Volkswagen Country Buggy or Type The last Australian-assembled Beetle was produced in July with assembly of other models ending in February Several features from the Super Beetle were grafted onto the South African Beetle S, such as curved windshield, new dashboard, and larger taillights, while retaining the Beetle chassis and mechanicals.

The model was introduced to South Africa in ; it was marketed as the cheapest 1. In late , the sporty SP Beetle arrived — this version received bright red, yellow, or silver paint with black stripes, a front spoiler, wide tyres, and a more powerful engine with twin carburettors and a freer flowing exhaust.

Also new for were rubber bumper strips for all s, and the same taillights with backup lights were now fitted across the range. The bigger-engined model was then phased out around August , leaving only the model in production.

The Beetle has been modified for use in drag racing ; [94] its rearward RR layout weight distribution keeps the weight over the rear wheels, maximizing grip off the starting line.

The car's weight is reduced for a full competition drag Beetle, further improving the grip and also the power-to-weight ratio.

To prevent this, "wheelie bars" were added. The Beetle is also used as the basis for the Formula Vee open-wheel racing category: In this configuration, FV would become one of the most popular entry-level motorsports classes of its time.

Volkswagen Beetle-style bodies are fitted to space frame racing chassis, and are used in the Uniroyal Fun Cup , which includes the longest continuous motor-race in the world, the 25 Hours of Spa.

It is an affordable entry-level series that gentleman drivers race. Especially the Austrian sole distributor Porsche Salzburg now Porsche Austria seriously entered the Volkswagen in local and European contests in the s and early s.

Victories were achieved in on Elba for overall and class, Acropolis for class 5th overall , Austrian championship , January Rallye for overall and class.

Diving beetles Dytiscidae hold air between the abdomen and the elytra when diving. Hydrophilidae have hairs on their under surface that retain a layer of air against their bodies.

Adult crawling water beetles use both their elytra and their hind coxae the basal segment of the back legs in air retention, while whirligig beetles simply carry an air bubble down with them whenever they dive.

Beetles have a variety of ways to communicate, including the use of pheromones. The mountain pine beetle emits a pheromone to attract other beetles to a tree.

The mass of beetles are able to overcome the chemical defenses of the tree. After the tree's defenses have been exhausted, the beetles emit an anti-aggregation pheromone.

This species can stridulate to communicate [88] , but others may use sound to defend themselves when attacked [89]. Parental care is found in a few species of beetle, perhaps for protection against adverse conditions and predators.

Burying beetles are attentive parents, and participate in cooperative care and feeding of their offspring. Both parents work to bury small animal carcass to serve as a food resource for their young and build a brood chamber around it.

The parents prepare the carcass and protect it from competitors and from early decomposition. After their eggs hatch, the parents keep the larvae clean of fungus and bacteria and help the larvae feed by regurgitating food for them.

Some dung beetles provide parental care, collecting herbivore dung and laying eggs within that food supply, an instance of mass provisioning.

Some species do not leave after this stage, but remain to safeguard their offspring. Most species of beetles do not display parental care behaviors after the eggs have been laid.

Eusociality involves cooperative brood care including brood care of offspring from other individuals , overlapping generations within a colony of adults, and a division of labour into reproductive and non-reproductive groups.

It is one of more than species of wood-boring Ambrosia beetles which distribute the spores of ambrosia fungi.

Beetles are able to exploit a wide diversity of food sources available in their many habitats. Some are omnivores , eating both plants and animals.

Other beetles are highly specialized in their diet. Many species of leaf beetles, longhorn beetles, and weevils are very host-specific, feeding on only a single species of plant.

Ground beetles and rove beetles Staphylinidae , among others, are primarily carnivorous and catch and consume many other arthropods and small prey, such as earthworms and snails.

While most predatory beetles are generalists, a few species have more specific prey requirements or preferences.

Decaying organic matter is a primary diet for many species. This can range from dung , which is consumed by coprophagous species such as certain scarab beetles in the Scarabaeidae , to dead animals, which are eaten by necrophagous species such as the carrion beetles , Silphidae.

Some beetles found in dung and carrion are in fact predatory. These include members of the Histeridae and Silphidae , preying on the larvae of coprophagous and necrophagous insects.

Some beetles have special mycangia , structures for the transport of fungal spores. Beetles, both adults and larvae, are the prey of many animal predators including mammals from bats to rodents , birds , lizards , amphibians , fishes , dragonflies , robberflies , reduviid bugs , ants , other beetles, and spiders.

These include camouflage and mimicry against predators that hunt by sight, toxicity, and defensive behaviour. Camouflage is common and widespread among beetle families, especially those that feed on wood or vegetation, such as leaf beetles Chrysomelidae, which are often green and weevils.

In some species, sculpturing or various coloured scales or hairs cause beetles such as the avocado weevil Heilipus apiatus to resemble bird dung or other inedible objects.

Some longhorn beetles Cerambycidae are effective Batesian mimics of wasps. Beetles may combine coloration with behavioural mimicry, acting like the wasps they already closely resemble.

Many other beetles, including ladybirds , blister beetles , and lycid beetles secrete distasteful or toxic substances to make them unpalatable or poisonous, and are often aposematic , where bright or contrasting coloration warn off predators; many beetles and other insects mimic these chemically protected species.

Chemical defense is important in some species, usually being advertised by bright aposematic colours. Some Tenebrionidae use their posture for releasing noxious chemicals to warn off predators.

Chemical defences may serve purposes other than just protection from vertebrates, such as protection from a wide range of microbes.

Some species sequester chemicals from the plants they feed on, incorporating them into their own defenses.

Other species have special glands to produce deterrent chemicals. The defensive glands of carabid ground beetles produce a variety of hydrocarbons , aldehydes , phenols , quinones , esters , and acids released from an opening at the end of the abdomen.

African carabid beetles for example, Anthia and Thermophilum — Thermophilum is sometimes included within Anthia employ the same chemicals as ants: The gland is made of two containing chambers, one for hydroquinones and hydrogen peroxide , the other holding hydrogen peroxide and catalase enzymes.

The oxygen propels the noxious chemical spray as a jet that can be aimed accurately at predators. Large ground-dwelling beetles such as Carabidae , the rhinoceros beetle and the longhorn beetles defend themselves using strong mandibles , or heavily sclerotised armored spines or horns to deter or fight off predators.

Some combine it with thanatosis , in which they close up their appendages and "play dead". A few species of beetles are ectoparasitic on mammals.

One such species, Platypsyllus castoris , parasitises beavers Castor spp. This beetle lives as a parasite both as a larva and as an adult, feeding on epidermal tissue and possibly on skin secretions and wound exudates.

They are strikingly flattened dorsoventrally, no doubt as an adaptation for slipping between the beavers' hairs. They are wingless and eyeless, as are many other ectoparasites.

Beetle-pollinated flowers are usually large, greenish or off-white in color, and heavily scented. Scents may be spicy, fruity, or similar to decaying organic material.

Beetles were most likely the first insects to pollinate flowers. Most beetle-pollinated flowers are flattened or dish-shaped, with pollen easily accessible, although they may include traps to keep the beetle longer.

The plants' ovaries are usually well protected from the biting mouthparts of their pollinators. The beetle families that habitually pollinate flowers are the Buprestidae, Cantharidae, Carambycidae, Cleridae, Dermestidae, Lycidae, Melyridae, Mordellidae, Nitidulidae and Scarabeidae.

Mutualism is well known in a few beetles, such as the ambrosia beetle , which partners with fungi to digest the wood of dead trees.

The beetles excavate tunnels in dead trees in which they cultivate fungal gardens, their sole source of nutrition. After landing on a suitable tree, an ambrosia beetle excavates a tunnel in which it releases spores of its fungal symbiont.

The fungus penetrates the plant's xylem tissue, digests it, and concentrates the nutrients on and near the surface of the beetle gallery, so the weevils and the fungus both benefit.

The beetles cannot eat the wood due to toxins, and uses its relationship with fungi to help overcome the defenses of its host tree in order to provide nutrition for their larvae.

Adult diapause is the most common form of diapause in Coleoptera. To endure the period without food often lasting many months adults prepare by accumulating reserves of lipids, glycogen, proteins and other substances needed for resistance to future hazardous changes of environmental conditions.

This diapause is induced by signals heralding the arrival of the unfavourable season; usually the cue is photoperiodic. Short decreasing day length serves as a signal of approaching winter and induces winter diapause hibernation.

This loss of body fat was a gradual process, occurring in combination with dehydration. All insects are poikilothermic , [] so the ability of a few beetles to live in extreme environments depends on their resilience to unusually high or low temperatures.

The low temperatures experienced by Cucujus clavipes can be survived through their deliberate dehydration in conjunction with the antifreeze proteins.

This concentrates the antifreezes several fold. Conversely, desert dwelling beetles are adapted to tolerate high temperatures.

These beetles also exhibits behavioural adaptions to tolerate the heat: The fogstand beetle of the Namib Desert , Stenocara gracilipes , is able to collect water from fog , as its elytra have a textured surface combining hydrophilic water-loving bumps and waxy, hydrophobic troughs.

The beetle faces the early morning breeze, holding up its abdomen; droplets condense on the elytra and run along ridges towards their mouthparts.

Similar adaptations are found in several other Namib desert beetles such as Onymacris unguicularis. Some terrestrial beetles that exploit shoreline and floodplain habitats have physiological adaptations for surviving floods.

In the event of flooding, adult beetles may be mobile enough to move away from flooding, but larvae and pupa often cannot.

Adults of Cicindela togata are unable to survive immersion in water, but larvae are able to survive a prolonged period, up to 6 days, of anoxia during floods.

Anoxia tolerance in the larvae may have been sustained by switching to anaerobic metabolic pathways or by reducing metabolic rate.

Many beetle species undertake annual mass movements which are termed as migrations. These include the pollen beetle Meligethes aeneus [] and many species of coccinellids.

Several species of dung beetle, especially the sacred scarab, Scarabaeus sacer , were revered in Ancient Egypt. The scarab was of prime significance in the funerary cult of ancient Egypt.

The best-known of these are the Judean LMLK seals , where eight of 21 designs contained scarab beetles, which were used exclusively to stamp impressions on storage jars during the reign of Hezekiah.

Pliny the Elder discusses beetles in his Natural History , [] describing the stag beetle: To these insects a sting has been denied by Nature; but in one large kind we find horns of a remarkable length, two-pronged at the extremities, and forming pincers, which the animal closes when it is its intention to bite.

He is black, long and has hard wings like a great dung beetle". Many feed on economically important plants and stored plant products, including trees, cereals, tobacco, and dried fruits.

The boll weevil crossed the Rio Grande near Brownsville , Texas, to enter the United States from Mexico around , [] and had reached southeastern Alabama by It remains the most destructive cotton pest in North America.

The bark beetle, elm leaf beetle and the Asian longhorned beetle Anoplophora glabripennis [] are among the species that attack elm trees. Bark beetles Scolytidae carry Dutch elm disease as they move from infected breeding sites to healthy trees.

The disease has devastated elm trees across Europe and North America. Some species of beetle have evolved immunity to insecticides.

For example, the Colorado potato beetle , Leptinotarsa decemlineata , is a destructive pest of potato plants. Its hosts include other members of the Solanaceae , such as nightshade , tomato , eggplant and capsicum , as well as the potato.

Different populations have between them developed resistance to all major classes of insecticide. The death watch beetle , Xestobium rufovillosum Ptinidae , is a serious pest of older wooden buildings in Europe.

It attacks hardwoods such as oak and chestnut , always where some fungal decay has taken or is taking place. The actual introduction of the pest into buildings is thought to take place at the time of construction.

Other pests include the coconut hispine beetle, Brontispa longissima , which feeds on young leaves , seedlings and mature coconut trees, causing serious economic damage in the Philippines.

Beetles can be beneficial to human economics by controlling the populations of pests. The larvae and adults of some species of lady beetles Coccinellidae feed on aphids that are pests.

Other lady beetles feed on scale insects , whitefly and mealybugs. For example, the genus Zygogramma is native to North America but has been used to control Parthenium hysterophorus in India and Ambrosia artemisiifolia in Russia.

Dung beetles Scarabidae have been successfully used to reduce the populations of pestilent flies, such as Musca vetustissima and Haematobia exigua which are serious pests of cattle in Australia.

The Dermestidae are often used in taxidermy and in the preparation of scientific specimens, to clean soft tissue from bones.

Beetles are the most widely eaten insects, with about species used as food, usually at the larval stage. Due to their habitat specificity, many species of beetles have been suggested as suitable as indicators, their presence, numbers, or absence providing a measure of habitat quality.

Predatory beetles such as the tiger beetles Cicindelidae have found scientific use as an indicator taxon for measuring regional patterns of biodiversity.

They are suitable for this as their taxonomy is stable; their life history is well described; they are large and simple to observe when visiting a site; they occur around the world in many habitats, with species specialised to particular habitats; and their occurrence by species accurately indicates other species, both vertebrate and invertebrate.

Many beetles have beautiful and durable elytra that have been used as material in arts, with beetlewing the best example.

Whole beetles, either as-is or encased in clear plastic, are made into objects ranging from cheap souvenirs such as key chains to expensive fine-art jewellery.

In parts of Mexico, beetles of the genus Zopherus are made into living brooches by attaching costume jewelry and golden chains, which is made possible by the incredibly hard elytra and sedentary habits of the genus.

Fighting beetles are used for entertainment and gambling. This sport exploits the territorial behavior and mating competition of certain species of large beetles.

In the Chiang Mai district of northern Thailand, male Xylotrupes rhinoceros beetles are caught in the wild and trained for fighting.

Females are held inside a log to stimulate the fighting males with their pheromones. Beetles are sometimes used as instruments: Some species of beetle are kept as pets , for example diving beetles Dytiscidae may be kept in a domestic fresh water tank.

In Japan the practice of keeping horned rhinoceros beetles Dynastinae and stag beetles Lucanidae is particularly popular amongst young boys.

Beetle collecting became extremely popular in the Victorian era. Several coleopteran adaptations have attracted interest in biomimetics with possible commercial applications.

The bombardier beetle 's powerful repellent spray has inspired the development of a fine mist spray technology, claimed to have a low carbon impact compared to aerosol sprays.

Living beetles have been used as cyborgs. A Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency funded project implanted electrodes into Mecynorhina torquata beetles, allowing them to be remotely controlled via a radio receiver held on its back, as proof-of-concept for surveillance work.

Since beetles form such a large part of the world's biodiversity, their conservation is important, and equally, loss of habitat and biodiversity is essentially certain to impact on beetles.

Unfortunately, with exceptions for groups such as ladybirds and fireflies, beetles as a whole have a less positive image than other insect groups like the butterflies: Some species are highly threatened while others are already feared extinct.

In Japan the Genji firefly, Luciola cruciata , is extremely popular, and in South Africa the Addo elephant dung beetle offers promise for broadening ecotourism beyond the big five tourist mammal species.

Popular dislike of pest beetles, too, can be turned into public interest in insects, as can unusual ecological adaptations of species like the fairy shrimp hunting beetle, Cicinis bruchi.

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Plecoptera stoneflies Dermaptera earwigs Embioptera webspinners Phasmatodea stick and leaf insects Notoptera ice-crawlers, gladiators Orthoptera crickets, wetas, grasshoppers, locusts Zoraptera angel insects.

Blattodea cockroaches, termites Mantodea mantises. Psocodea barklice, lice Thysanoptera thrips Hemiptera cicadas, aphids, true bugs.

Hymenoptera sawflies, wasps, ants, bees. Strepsiptera twisted-winged parasites Coleoptera beetles. Raphidioptera snakeflies Megaloptera alderflies, dobsonflies, fishflies Neuroptera net-winged insects: Trichoptera caddisflies Lepidoptera moths, butterflies.

Four most speciose orders are marked in bold Italic are paraphyletic groups Based on Sasaki et al.

Extinct incertae sedis families and genera are marked in italic. Crowsoniellidae Crowsoniella relicta Cupedidae reticulated beetles Jurodidae Sikhotealinia zhiltzovae Micromalthidae telephone-pole beetle Ommatidae.

Amphizoidae trout-stream beetles Aspidytidae Carabidae ground beetles Dytiscidae predaceous diving beetles Gyrinidae whirligig beetles Haliplidae crawling water beetles Hygrobiidae Meruidae Meru phyllisae Noteridae burrowing water beetles Rhysodidae wrinkled bark beetles Trachypachidae false ground beetles.

Hydroscaphidae skiff beetles Lepiceridae Sphaeriusidae Torridincolidae. Anobiidae furniture beetles, death watch beetles, spider beetles Bostrichidae auger beetles Dermestidae skin beetles Jacobsoniidae Jacobson's beetles Nosodendridae wounded-tree beetles.

Derodontidae tooth-necked fungus beetles.


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